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Explanation of the working principle of laser cutting machine

The laser cutting machine is a laser beam emitted from the laser, which is focused into a laser beam of high power density through the optical path system. The laser beam is irradiated to the surface of the workpiece, so that the workpiece reaches the melting point or boiling point, and the high-pressure gas coaxial with the beam will blow away the molten or vaporized metal.

With the movement of the relative position of the beam and the workpiece, the material is finally formed into a slit, so as to achieve the purpose of cutting.

Laser cutting is to replace the traditional mechanical knife with an invisible light beam. It has the characteristics of high precision, fast cutting, not limited to cutting patterns, automatic layout, saving materials, smooth incisions, and low processing costs. It will be gradually improved or replaced by Traditional metal cutting process equipment. The mechanical part of the laser head is not in contact with the workpiece, and will not cause scratches on the surface of the workpiece during the work; the laser cutting speed is fast, the incision is smooth and flat, and generally no subsequent processing is required; the cutting heat affected zone is small, the plate deformation is small, and the cutting slit is narrow 0.1mm~0.3mm); the incision has no mechanical stress and no shear burrs; the processing accuracy is high, the repeatability is good, and the surface of the material is not damaged; CNC programming, can process any plan, can cut the whole board with a large breadth, no need Open the mold, economy and time-saving.

Laser is a kind of light, just like other natural light, it is produced by the transition of atoms (molecules or ions, etc.). However, it is different from ordinary light because the laser depends on spontaneous radiation only for a very short period of time. The subsequent process is completely determined by the excitation radiation, so the laser has a very pure color, almost no divergence direction, and extremely high luminous intensity. And high coherence.

Laser cutting is achieved by applying high power density energy generated by laser focusing. Under the control of the computer, the laser is discharged by pulses to output a controlled repetitive high-frequency pulsed laser to form a beam with a certain frequency and a certain pulse width. The pulsed laser beam is transmitted and reflected through the optical path and is focused by the focusing lens group. On the surface of the processed object, minute, high-energy density light spots are formed, and the focal spot is located near the surface to be processed, and the processed material is melted or vaporized at an instant high temperature. Each high-energy laser pulse instantly sputters a small hole on the surface of the object. Under the control of the computer, the laser processing head and the material to be processed perform continuous relative movement and dotting according to the pre-drawn graphics, so that the object will be processed into The desired shape.

The technological parameters (cutting speed, laser power, gas pressure, etc.) and movement trajectory during slitting are controlled by the CNC system, and the slag at the slit is blown off by the auxiliary gas with a certain pressure.